Magnolia polyphenols attenuate oxidative and inflammatory responses in neurons and microglial cells
- Dennis Y Chuang1_786, 2_786, 3_786Email author,
- Ming-Huan Chan4_786, 5_786Email author,
- Yijia Zong1_786, 2_786, 3_786Email author,
- Wenwen Sheng5_786,
- Yan He5_786, 6_786,
- Jing Hua Jiang3_786, 5_786,
- Agnes Simonyi1_786, 2_786, 3_786, 5_786,
- Zezong Gu1_786, 2_786, 3_786, 7_786,
- Kevin L Fritsche3_786, 8_786,
- Jiankun Cui1_786, 2_786, 3_786, 7_786,
- James C Lee1_786, 9_786,
- William R Folk3_786, 5_786,
- Dennis B Lubahn3_786, 5_786, 8_786,
- Albert Y Sun1_786, 2_786, 3_786, 7_786 and
- Grace Y Sun1_786, 2_786, 3_786, 5_786, 7_786Email author
© Chuang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 11 August 2012
Accepted: 17 January 2013
Published: 29 January 2013
The bark of magnolia has been used in Oriental medicine to treat a variety of remedies, including some neurological disorders. Magnolol (Mag) and honokiol (Hon) are isomers of polyphenolic compounds from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, and have been identified as major active components exhibiting anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigate the ability of these isomers to suppress oxidative stress in neurons stimulated by the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells activated by interferon-γ (IFNγ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also attempt to elucidate the mechanism and signaling pathways involved in cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglial cells.
Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to assay superoxide production in neurons, while CM-H2DCF-DA was used to test for ROS production in murine (BV-2) and rat (HAPI) immortalized microglial cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitors (for example, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), AEBSF, and apocynin) and immunocytochemistry targeting p47phox and gp91phox were used to assess the involvement of NADPH oxidase. Western blotting was used to assess iNOS and ERK1/2 expression, and the Griess reaction protocol was employed to determine nitric oxide (NO) concentration.
Exposure of Hon and Mag (1–10 μM) to neurons for 24 h did not alter neuronal viability, but both compounds (10 μM) inhibited NMDA-stimulated superoxide production, a pathway known to involve NADPH oxidase. In microglial cells, Hon and Mag inhibited IFNγ±LPS-induced iNOS expression, NO, and ROS production. Studies with inhibitors and immunocytochemical assay further demonstrated the important role of IFNγ activating the NADPH oxidase through the p-ERK-dependent pathway. Hon and, to a lesser extent, Mag inhibited IFNγ-induced p-ERK1/2 and its downstream pathway for ROS and NO production.
This study highlights the important role of NADPH oxidase in mediating oxidative stress in neurons and microglial cells and has unveiled the role of IFNγ in stimulating the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway for activation of NADPH oxidase in microglial cells. Hon and Mag offer anti-oxidative or anti-inflammatory effects, at least in part, through suppressing IFNγ-induced p-ERK1/2 and its downstream pathway.
KeywordsERK1/2 Honokiol IFNγ iNOS/NO Inflammatory Magnolol Microglial cells Oxidative NADPH oxidase Neurons
The bark of the magnolia tree has been used in a number of traditional herbal medicinal preparations in Oriental countries for thousands of years . Magnolia officinalis (China) and Magnolia obovata (Japan) contain a rich source of biologically active compounds, including alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, neolignans, and terpenoids [2, 3]. According to in vitro and in vivo studies, and recent clinical trials, there is strong evidence that these constituents play an important role in the treatment of a plethora of ailments by reducing allergic and asthmatic reactions, and suppressing anxietic and angiogenic responses [4–9].
Studies with cell models have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of Hon and Mag in mitigating cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes [18–20]. This type of inflammatory response is important in microglial cells because their activation has been the basis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Although cytokines and LPS have been shown to activate microglial cells and induce ROS and NO production, mechanistic details within the signaling pathways leading to this type of oxidative and inflammatory responses have not been clearly elucidated.
In this study, we aim to test the ability for Hon and Mag to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses in neurons and microglial cells. Studies with neurons were based on the excitotoxic model demonstrating the involvement of NADPH oxidase in NMDA-stimulated ROS production . Studies with microglial cells demonstrated that NADPH oxidase was also involved in mediating cytokine and LPS-induced ROS production. In addition, our studies further unveiled the important role of the IFNγ-ERK1/2 signaling pathway for ROS production and the ability of Hon and Mag to suppress this pathway in microglial cells.
Materials and methods
Honokiol (lot number M8P0236) and magnolol (lot number M8F3374) (≥98% pure based on HPLC) were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Inc. (Kyoto, Japan). These compounds were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as stock solutions. DMEM, penicillin, streptomycin, 0.05% (w/v) trypsin/EDTA, and PBS were obtained from GIBCO (Gaithersburg, MD). Interferon-γ (IFNγ) was purchased from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (rough strains) from Escherichia coli F583 (Rd mutant) and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). The AlamarBlue™ kit was from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). Fetal bovine serum was from Atlanta Biologicals (Lawrenceville, GA). Antibodies used for Western blotting include: goat anti-rabbit IgG-horseradish peroxidase, goat anti-mouse IgG-horseradish peroxidase, and iNOS polyclonal (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA); monoclonal anti-β-actin peroxidase (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); ERK1/2, phospho-ERK1/2, (Cell Signaling, Beverly, MA). Antibodies used for immunocytochemical staining include rabbit anti-p47phox antibodies (Calbiochem, Billerica, MA), mouse anti-gp91phox (Thermo Fisher, Waltham, MA), goat-anti-rabbit Alexa fluor 488 (Jackson Immunoresearch, West Grove, PA), and goat-anti-mouse Alexa fluor 549 (Jackson Immunoresearch, West Grove, PA).
For ROS detection, CM-H2DCFDA (DCF) was obtained from Invitrogen, Inc. (Carlsbad, CA), and dihydroethidium (DHE) from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Inhibitors used in this study include: MEK inhibitor U0126 (Cell Signaling, Beverly, MA), 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonylfluoride (AEBSF, Calbiochem, San Diego, CA), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO).
Preparations of primary cortical neuron cells involved pregnant E17 Sprague–Dawley rats (Harlan, IN, USA). All animal care and experimental protocols were carried out in accordance with National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines and with permission from the University of Missouri Animal Care and Use Committee (protocol #6728). Primary cortical neurons were prepared from the cerebral cortices of E17 Sprague–Dawley rat embryos as described . Briefly, cerebral cortices were dissected and meninges removed. The tissues were suspended in 3 ml 0.05% (w/v) trypsin/EDTA and incubated for 30 min at 37°C. The cell suspension was triturated through a fine-burned-tip glass pipette until tissues were homogenized. The filtrate was centrifuged at 1000g for 1 min and resuspended in 10% FBS in DMEM containing 100 units/ml penicillin and streptomycin (100 μg/ml). Finally, cells were plated in 24-well plates for MTT analysis and 35 mm dishes for ROS detection. The plates were precoated with poly-L-lysine (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) the day before plating and incubated overnight. Four hours after plating, culture medium was completely changed to B27 supplemented Neurobasal medium containing 100 units/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, and glutamine. Culture was maintained by changing 1/2 volume of B27 medium in each well every 4 days. Experiments were conducted 8 days after plating, to ensure adequate culture maturation.
The immortalized mouse BV-2 and rat HAPI microglial cells were cultured as described previously . Briefly, cells were cultured in 75 cm2 flasks with DMEM (high glucose) supplemented with 10% FBS containing 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin, and maintained in a 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. For subculture, cells were removed from the culture flask with a scraper, resuspended in the culture medium and subcultured in 12, 24, or 96-well plates for experiments.
Assessing cell viability
Two assay protocols were used to assess neuron viability after exposure to Hon and Mag. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is an initial step in apoptotic pathways that lead to neuronal cell death, the MTT assay was used to determine mitochondrial dysfunction. In this assay, neurons were cultured in 24-well plates and treated with Hon or Mag (1 to 10 μM) at 37°C for 24 h. After treatment, culture medium was removed and 1 ml of MTT reagent (0.5 mg/ml) dissolved in serum-free DMEM was added to each well. The plates were incubated for 3 h at 37°C, and the formazan particles in each well were dissolved in 500 μl of DMSO. After shaking the plates at room temperature for 5 min, absorbance was read at 540 nm using a Synergy4 Plate Reader (BioTek Instruments, Inc., Fisher Scientific, St. Louis, MO, USA.).
AlamarBlue™ is a cell-permeable nonfluorescent dye, which can be converted into red fluorescence on reductive reactions within live cells. This assay was used to determine the extent of neuronal viability after exposure to Hon and Mag (1 to 10 μM). In this assay, neurons were cultured in 24-well plates and then treated with Hon or Mag (1 to 10 μM) at 37°C for 24 h. After treatments, 100 μl of AlamarBlueTM was added to each well and neurons were further incubated at 37°C for 3 h. Absorbance was read at 570 nm using the Synergy4 Plate Reader (BioTek) with measurement at 600 nm as a reference.
Measurement of superoxide in neurons and ROS production in microglial cells
Dihydroethidium (DHE) is oxidized by superoxide anions to produce fluorescent ethidium, which is intercalated into DNA, and can be quantified by summing the fluorescence within the cell . This protocol has been successfully used to measure superoxide production in neurons [16, 21]. Neurons were cultured on 35 mm dishes precoated with poly-L-lysine. Neurons were then treated with Hon or Mag (10 μM) for 30 min, and exposed to NMDA (100 μM) for 30 min in phenol red free Neurobasal medium with 0.5 mg/ml BSA. At 30 min prior to image acquisition, cells were loaded with DHE (10 μM) and incubated at 37°C. Fluorescence images were acquired using a Nikon TE-2000 U inverted microscope with a 20× NA 0.95 objective and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera controlled with a computer running MetaView imaging software (Universal Imaging, West Chester, PA). The fluorescence excitation source was controlled with a Uni-Blitz mechanical shutter. For image acquisition, a short exposure time (200 ms) and low-intensity excitation light were applied to minimize photobleaching. Digital images were analyzed using the MetaView software with automatic background subtraction. Threshold fluorescence levels were obtained for each image prior to the quantification. For each field, the total fluorescence was measured and expressed as the average fluorescence normalized by the total number of cells. For each treatment group, at least three random images from the same dish were captured and analyzed, and each treatment was repeated three times independently for statistical analysis.
For measurement of ROS production in microglial cells, we adopted a protocol using CM-H2DCF-DA, a compound that becomes fluorescent upon interacting with ROS including H2O2. In this study, microglial cells were seeded in 96-well plates, and when they became 90% confluent, they were serum-starved for 4 h. Cells were treated with cytokines or LPS, or both, for different times and CM-H2DCF-DA (10 μM) was added 1 h before measurement. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with U0126 or Hon or Mag for 1 h prior to stimulating with IFNγ for 11 h, the CM-H2DCF-DA (10 μM) was then added and the cells were further incubated for 1 h. The fluorescent intensity of DCF was measured using the Synergy4 microplate reader with an excitation wavelength of 490 nm and an emission wavelength of 520 nm.
Measurement of NO
Cells were serum-starved in phenol red free DMEM for 3 h, followed by pretreatment of compounds of interest for 1 h. Cells were then treated with IFNγ and LPS or IFNγ alone and incubated at 37°C for 16 h. Nitric oxide released from cells was converted to nitrite in the culture medium, which was determined using the Griess reagent protocol. Aliquots (50 μl) of culture medium were transferred to a 96-well plate and incubated with 50 μl of Reagent A (1% sulfanilamide in 5% phosphoric acid) per well for 10 min at room temperature, covered and in the dark. This was followed by incubation with 50 μl of reagent B (0.1%, w/v, N-1-napthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride, Sigma-Aldrich) per well for 10 min at room temperature, covered and in the dark. Serial dilutions of sodium nitrite (0 to 100 μM) were used to generate the nitrite standard reference curve. Following the incubation period, absorbance at 543 nm was measured using the Synergy4 microplate reader.
Western blot analysis
Cells were harvested in lysis radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) buffer containing 50 mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, and 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The extract was centrifuged at 10,000g for 15 min at 4°C to remove cell debris. Protein concentration was determined with the BCA protein assay kit (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL). For each sample, 5 μg of protein was loaded and resolved in 8% SDS-PAGE and run at 100 V. After electrophoresis, proteins were transferred to 0.45 μm nitrocellulose membranes at 300 mA for 3 h. Membranes were blocked in Tris-buffered saline (TBS), pH 7.4, with 0.1% Tween 20 (TBS-T) containing 5% nonfat milk for 1 h at room temperature. For different experiments, the blots were incubated with ERK1/2 (1:2000), phospho-ERK1/2 (1:2000), iNOS polyclonal (1:1000) antibodies overnight at 4°C. After repeated washing with TBS-T, blots were incubated with goat anti-rabbit IgG- horseradish peroxidase (1:4000) or goat anti-mouse IgG- horseradish peroxidase (1:2000) for 1 h at room temperature. The blots were then washed three times with TBS-T. Immunolabeling was detected by chemiluminescence ECL/WestPico/femto. For loading control, blots were incubated with monoclonal anti-β-actin peroxidase (1:30,000). For quantification, blots were scanned and the intensity of protein bands was measured as optical density using the QuantityOne program (BioRad, Hercules, CA).
Immunostaining of p47phox and gp91phox in microglial cells
BV-2 microglia cells were serum-starved for 4 h, followed by stimulation with IFNγ (10 ng/ml) for 12 h. The cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min and then permeabilized with 0.1 % Triton X-100 in PBS for 30 min. Cells were incubated with 10% normal goat serum in 0.005% Triton X-100 in PBS for 60 min. Cells were then incubated overnight in 0.5% normal goat serum in 0.005% Triton X-100 in PBS containing primary antibodies: rabbit anti-p47phox antibodies (1:500; Calbiochem) and mouse anti-gp91phox antibodies (1:500; Thermo Fisher). The next day, cells were incubated in 0.005% Triton X-100 in PBS containing secondary antibodies, goat-anti-rabbit Alexa fluor 488 (Jackson Immunoresearch) and goat-anti-mouse Alexa fluor 549 (Jackson Immunoresearch) for 60 min, followed by nuclear counterstaining in PBS containing 1 μg/ml of 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (Pierce) for 10 min. The coverslips were then mounted on fluoromount (Sigma-Aldrich) and sealed with nail polish. Fluorescence photomicrographs were captured using a Leica DMI 6000B fully automated epifluorescence microscope (Leica Microsystems Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL) as serial z-stack images and processed for deconvolution with AF6000 applications.
Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests or two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni posttests (V4.00; GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA). Statistical significance was considered for P < 0.05.
Hon and Mag suppressed NMDA-induced superoxide production in neurons
Subsequently, we tested the effects of Hon and Mag on superoxide production in neurons stimulated with NMDA (100 μM for 30 min). Treatment of neurons with NMDA elicited a large increase in superoxide production (Figure 2B, C). Hon and Mag (10 μM) alone did not elicit superoxide production in neurons; however, both compounds significantly inhibited NMDA-induced superoxide production (Figure 2B, C).
Hon and Mag inhibited IFNγ- and LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production in BV-2 microglial cells
ROS production in BV-2 microglial cells
Based on the time course conditions, we used the 12 h time point to examine whether Hon and Mag may alter IFNγ-induced ROS production. Results indicated that Hon and, less effectively, Mag did inhibit IFNγ-induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. However, neither compound alone could exert obvious effects on the basal ROS production (Figure 6B, C).
NADPH oxidase is involved in IFNγ-induced ROS production
Using these inhibitors, we further tested whether IFNγ-induced ROS is critical for downstream signaling pathway leading to NO production. As shown in Figure 7C and D, DPI and AEBSF similarly inhibited IFNγ-induced NO production. Apocynin, a botanical compound known to inhibit translocation of cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox to the membrane complex , was shown to inhibit IFNγ-induced NO production albeit at high concentrations, starting at 40 μM (Figure 7E).
IFNγ-induced phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2
IFNγ-induced increase in p-ERK1/2 is upstream of ROS and NO production
In this study, we used rat primary cortical neurons and immortalized microglial cells (murine BV-2 and rat HAPI) to demonstrate the ability of Hon and Mag to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by NMDA in neurons and IFNγ ± LPS in microglial cells. Exposure of neurons to Hon and Mag (up to 10 μM) for 24 h did not alter neuronal viability, but both compounds (10 μM) dramatically inhibited NMDA-induced superoxide production. Results from earlier studies have demonstrated involvement of NADPH oxidase in neuronal excitation [16, 17], and Mag and Hon were shown to offer protection against neuronal toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide and ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist . These and other results are in line with the suggestion of possible therapeutic application of these compounds to treat neurological disorders .
The induction of iNOS expression and NO production by pro-inflammatory cytokines and LPS is known to involve the transcriptional pathways associated with NF-κB and the canonical JAK/STAT pathway induced by IFNγ [22, 30]. Interestingly, in BV-2 and HAPI microglial cells, LPS and IFNγ can individually stimulate iNOS/NO production, suggesting presence of cross-talk mechanisms between these two pathways [25, 31, 32]. There is evidence that signaling molecules, such as protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), can mediate the cross-talk pathways [22, 33]. In studies with microglial cells, increase in MAPK-ERK1/2 activity has been shown to occur during induction of iNOS by LPS and IFNγ [34–36]. Our results here also demonstrated the ability for IFNγ alone to stimulate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in microglial cells (Figure 9A, B). However, unlike studies in which neurons show a rapid induction of p-ERK1/2 in minutes in response to NMDA stimulation , phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by IFNγ in BV-2 microglial cells turned out to be a much slower and gradual process, first observable after 1 h and reaching a plateau around 4 h. In human macrophages, stimulation of p-ERK1/2 by IFNγ exhibited an even longer delay time, of 6 h . Apparently, the time required for ERK1/2 phosphorylation varies depending on the cell types and agonists used for activation .
Although pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to stimulate ROS production in microglial cells, the mechanisms for ROS production have not been clearly elucidated . In our study with microglial cells, ROS production induced by LPS and IFNγ was not observed before 4 h (Figure 6A). Since IFNγ-induced ROS production was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor (U0126, Figure 12B), it is reasonable to conclude that p-ERK1/2 plays an important role in the induction process. Our results support earlier studies demonstrating the involvement of ERK1/2 from IFNγ to stimulate superoxide in a mixed glial cell culture . Our study further provided evidence for involvement of NADPH oxidase in IFNγ-induced ROS production in microglial cells. Inhibitors, such as DPI and AEBSF, not only inhibited ROS but also NO production, suggesting that ROS production precedes induction of iNOS. To demonstrate further the involvement of NADPH oxidase in IFNγ-induced ROS production, double immunocytochemical staining showed translocation of p47phox from cytoplasm to membrane and co-localized with the gp91phox after treating cells with IFNγ (Figure 8). In a study with macrophages, IFNγ was shown to activate NADPH oxidase through increase in intracellular trafficking and expression of gp91phox .
Many extracellular signals are coupled with cell surface receptors linking to activation of the MAPK pathway. In this study, we demonstrated the role of IFNγ in stimulating ROS from NADPH oxidase through the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Indeed, activation of ERK1/2 has been shown to elicit multiple downstream events, including phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and arachidonic acid release in neurons , production of filopodia in BV-2 microglial cells , transcytosis of macromolecules across the epithelial monolayers , and enhanced phosphorylation of STAT1 .
Taken together, these results demonstrated a novel role of IFNγ in stimulating the MAPK-ERK1/2 pathway, and in turn, in activating ROS production through NADPH oxidase. Since IFNγ-induced p-ERK is upstream of ROS and iNOS/NO production, agents that inhibit p-ERK1/2 can shut down both ROS production and iNOS induction. Understanding this mechanism helps to explain earlier observations that LPS + IFNγ induced ROS production in microglial cells preceded the induction of iNOS .
Many natural polyphenols, including luteolin, gastrodin, and ginsenoside, exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and inhibit LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in microglial cells, either through ERK1/2 or other types of MAPK [7, 43–47]. Other studies have demonstrated the ability of Hon and Mag to inhibit cytokine-induced NO production and expression of iNOS, as well as generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes [18–20, 48]. Our studies unveiled the role of the IFNγ-ERK1/2 pathway in ROS production through NADPH oxidase, and the ability of Hon and Mag to suppress this oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Understanding this mechanism can help to explain the ability of these botanicals to suppress hyperactivity in brain and retard microglial cell activation and ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases.
In summary, our studies with neurons and microglial cells provided strong evidence for anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Hon and Mag and underscore the important role of NADPH oxidase in the superoxide/ROS production in these cells. Results with microglial cells further unveiled the important role of IFNγ in stimulating signaling pathways involving activation of ERK1/2, ROS, and NO. These results also provide a useful and novel platform for testing anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of other botanicals.
This work is dedicated to Dr. Albert Y. Sun, who devoted his life to the study of polyphenols in health and diseases. He passed away on 30 April 2012.
Analysis of variance
Bovine serum albumen
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium
Fetal bovine serum
High performance liquid chromatography
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
National Institutes of Health
Reactive oxygen species
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Standard error of the mean
This work is supported by NIH grants 2P01 AG08357 from NIA, 1P50 AT006273 from NCCAM, ODS and NCI, and a grant (99-2918-I-320-001) from the National Science Council, Taiwan.
- Lee YJ, Lee YM, Lee CK, Jung JK, Han SB, Hong JT: Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family. Pharmacol Ther 2011,130(2):157–176.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito K, Iida T, Ichino K, Tsunezuka M, Hattori M, Namba T: Obovatol and obovatal, novel biphenyl ether lignans from the leaves of Magnolia obovata Thunb . Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo) 1982,30(9):3347–3353.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tachikawa E, Takahashi M, Kashimoto T: Effects of extract and ingredients isolated from Magnolia obovata thunberg on catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2000,60(3):433–440.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou HY, Shin EM, Guo LY, Youn UJ, Bae K, Kang SS, Zou LB, Kim YS: Anti-inflammatory activity of 4-methoxyhonokiol is a function of the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages via NF-κB, JNK and p38 MAPK inactivation. Eur J Pharmacol 2008,586(1–3):340–349.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsai SK, Huang CH, Huang SS, Hung LM, Hong CY: Antiarrhythmic effect of magnolol and honokiol during acute phase of coronary occlusion in anesthetized rats: influence of L-NAME and aspirin. Pharmacology 1999,59(5):227–233.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu YC, Chen HH, Ko CH, Lin YR, Chan MH: The mechanism of honokiol-induced and magnolol-induced inhibition on muscle contraction and Ca 2+ mobilization in rat uterus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2003,368(4):262–269.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang CP, Hsu YC, Lin MT: Magnolol protects against cerebral ischaemic injury of rat heatstroke. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2003,30(5–6):387–392.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ikarashi Y, Yuzurihara M, Sakakibara I, Nakai Y, Hattori N, Maruyama Y: Effects of the extract of the bark of Magnolia obovata and its biphenolic constituents magnolol and honokiol on histamine release from peritoneal mast cells in rats. Planta Med 2001,67(8):709–713.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liou KT, Shen YC, Chen CF, Tsao CM, Tsai SK: The anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol on neutrophils: mechanisms in the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. Eur J Pharmacol 2003,475(1–3):19–27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe K, Watanabe H, Goto Y, Yamaguchi M, Yamamoto N, Hagino K: Pharmacological properties of magnolol and hōnokiol extracted from Magnolia officinalis : central depressant effects. Planta Med 1983,49(2):103–108.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maruyama Y, Kuribara H, Morita M, Yuzurihara M, Weintraub ST: Identification of magnolol and honokiol as anxiolytic agents in extracts of saiboku-to, an oriental herbal medicine. J Nat Prod 1998,61(1):135–138.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu B, Hattori N, Zhang NY, Wu B, Yang L, Kitagawa K, Xiong ZM, Irie T, Inagaki C: Anxiolytic agent, dihydrohonokiol-B, recovers amyloid β protein-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett 2005,384(1–2):44–47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen HH, Lin SC, Chan MH: Protective and restorative effects of magnolol on neurotoxicity in mice with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hemiparkinsonism. Neurodegener Dis 2011,8(5):364–374.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu Q, Yi LT, Pan Y, Wang X, Li YC, Li JM, Wang CP, Kong LD: Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008,32(3):715–725.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang-Mu C, Jen-Kun L, Shing-Hwa L, Shoei-Yn LS: Characterization of neurotoxic effects of NMDA and the novel neuroprotection by phytopolyphenols in mice. Behav Neurosci 2010,124(4):541–553.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shelat PB, Chalimoniuk M, Wang JH, Strosznajder JB, Lee JC, Sun AY, Simonyi A, Sun GY: Amyloid beta peptide and NMDA induce ROS from NADPH oxidase and AA release from cytosolic phospholipase A 2 in cortical neurons. J Neurochem 2008,106(1):45–55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brennan AM, Suh SW, Won SJ, Narasimhan P, Kauppinen TM, Lee H, Edling Y, Chan PH, Swanson RA: NADPH oxidase is the primary source of superoxide induced by NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci 2009,12(7):857–863.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Oh JH, Kang LL, Ban JO, Kim YH, Kim KH, Han SB, Hong JT: Anti-inflammatory effect of 4-O-methylhonokiol, compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis through inhibition of NF-κB [corrected]. Chem Biol Interact 2009,180(3):506–514.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuo DH, Lai YS, Lo CY, Cheng AC, Wu H, Pan MH: Inhibitory effect of magnolol on TPA-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2010,58(9):5777–5783.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu F, Zhang W, Li L, Zheng F, Shao X, Zhou J, Li H: Inhibitory effects of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide-induced cellular responses and signaling events in human renal mesangial cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2011,654(1):117–121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He Y, Cui J, Lee JC, Ding S, Chalimoniuk M, Simonyi A, Sun AY, Gu Z, Weisman GA, Wood WG, Sun GY: Prolonged exposure of cortical neurons to oligomeric amyloid-β impairs NMDA receptor function via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production: protective effect of green tea (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. ASN Neuro 2011,3(1):e00050.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shen S, Yu S, Binek J, Chalimoniuk M, Zhang X, Lo SC, Hannink M, Wu J, Fritsche K, Donato R, Sun GY: Distinct signaling pathways for induction of type II NOS by IFNγ and LPS in BV-2 microglial cells. Neurochem Int 2005,47(4):298–307.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chapman KE, Sinclair SE, Zhuang D, Hassid A, Desai LP, Waters CM: Cyclic mechanical strain increases reactive oxygen species production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2005, 289:L834-L841.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forkink M, Smeitink JA, Brock R, Willems PH, Koopman WJ: Detection and manipulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 2010,1797(6–7):1034–1044.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheng W, Zong Y, Mohammad A, Ajit D, Cui J, Han D, Hamilton JL, Simonyi A, Sun AY, Gu Z, Hong JS, Weisman GA, Sun GY: Pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharide induce changes in cell morphology, and upregulation of ERK1/2, iNOS and sPLA(2)-IIA expression in astrocytes and microglia. J Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:121.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Diatchuk V, Lotan O, Koshkin V, Wikstroem P, Pick E: Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride and related compounds. J Biol Chem 1997, 272:13292–301.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stolk J, Hiltermann TJ, Dijkman JH, Verhoeven AJ: Characteristics of the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils by apocynin, a methoxy-substituted catechol. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1994,11(1):95–102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bokoch GM, Diebold B, Kim JS, Gianni D: Emerging evidence for the importance of phosphorylation in the regulation of NADPH oxidases. Antioxid Redox Signal 2009,11(10):2429–2441.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lin YR, Chen HH, Ko CH, Chan MH: Neuroprotective activity of honokiol and magnolol in cerebellar granule cell damage. Eur J Pharmacol 2006,537(1–3):64–69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marcus JS, Karackattu SL, Fleegal MA, Sumners C: Cytokine-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in astroglia: role of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB. Glia 2003,41(2):152–160.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Otero M, Lago R, Gómez R, Lago F, Gomez-Reino JJ, Gualillo O: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, MEK-1 and p38 mediate leptin/interferon-gamma synergistic NOS type II induction in chondrocytes. Life Sci 2007,81(19–20):1452–1460.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mir M, Asensio VJ, Tolosa L, Gou-Fabregas M, Soler RM, Lladó J, Olmos G: Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma cooperatively induce oxidative stress and motoneuron death in rat spinal cord embryonic explants. Neuroscience 2009,162(4):959–971.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chao LK, Liao PC, Ho CL, Wang EI, Chuang CC, Chiu HW, Hung LB, Hua KF: Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of honokiol through inhibition of protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the NF-κB pathway to reduce LPS-induced TNFα and NO expression. J Agric Food Chem 2010,58(6):3472–3478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan ED, Riches DW: IFN-γ + LPS induction of iNOS is modulated by ERK, JNK/SAPK, and p38 mapk in a mouse macrophage cell line. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2001,280(3):C441-C450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blanchette J, Jaramillo M, Olivier M: Signalling events involved in interferon-γ-inducible macrophage nitric oxide generation. Immunology 2003,108(4):513–522.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Herrera-Molina R, Flores B, Orellana JA, von Bernhardi R: Modulation of interferon-γ-induced glial cell activation by transforming growth factor β1: a role for STAT1 and MAPK pathways. J Neurochem 2012,123(1):113–123.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Smyth D, Phan V, Wang A, McKay DM: Interferon-γ-induced increases in intestinal epithelial macromolecular permeability requires the Src kinase Fyn. Lab Invest 2011,91(5):764–777.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saud K, Herrera-Molina R, Von Bernhardi R: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines regulate the ERK pathway: implication of the timing for the activation of microglial cells. Neurotox Res 2005,8(3–4):277–287.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao S, Zhang L, Lian G, Wang X, Zhang H, Yao X, Yang J, Wu C: Sildenafil attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through down-regulation of intracellular ROS-related MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways in N9 microglia. Int Immunopharmacol 2011,11(4):468–474.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casbon AJ, Long ME, Dunn KW, Allen LA, Dinauer MC: Effects of IFN-γ on intracellular trafficking and activity of macrophage NADPH oxidase flavocytochrome b558. J Leukoc Biol 2012,92(4):869–882.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Li N, McLaren JE, Michael DR, Clement M, Fielding CA, Ramji DP: ERK is integral to the IFN-γ-mediated activation of STAT1, the expression of key genes implicated in atherosclerosis, and the uptake of modified lipoproteins by human macrophages. J Immunol 2010,185(5):3041–3048.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pawate S, Shen Q, Fan F, Bhat NR: Redox regulation of glial inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide and interferonγ. J Neurosci Res 2004,77(4):540–551.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kao TK, Ou YC, Lin SY, Pan HC, Song PJ, Raung SL, Lai CY, Liao SL, Lu HC, Chen CJ: Luteolin inhibits cytokine expression in endotoxin/cytokine-stimulated microglia. J Nutr Biochem 2011,22(7):612–624.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dai JN, Zong Y, Zhong LM, Li YM, Zhang W, Bian LG, Ai QL, Liu YD, Sun J, Lu D: Gastrodin inhibits expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured LPS-stimulated microglia via MAPK pathways. PLoS One 2011,6(7):e21891.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jung HW, Seo UK, Kim JH, Leem KH, Park YK: Flower extract of Panax notoginseng attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signaling pathway in murine macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol 2009,122(2):313–319.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liou KT, Shen YC, Chen CF, Tsao CM, Tsai SK: Honokiol protects rat brain from focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and reactive oxygen species production. Brain Res 2003,992(2):159–166.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jung JS, Kim DH, Kim HS: Ginsenoside Rh1 suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in IFN-γ-stimulated microglia via modulation of JAK/STAT and ERK signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010,397(2):323–328.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kang JS, Lee KH, Han MH, Lee H, Ahn JM, Han SB, Han G, Lee K, Park SK, Kim HM: Antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract isolated from stem bark of Magnolia kobus . Phytother Res 2008,22(7):883–888.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.