GFAP immunohistochemistry in hippocampus. T-: control mice, T+: TGF-β1 mice. Animals had been fed for 2 months with control (A-B) or pioglitazone-containing (C, D) chow. GFAP expression was increased in TGF-β1 animals mostly in astrocytes in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in perivascular astrocytes at the hippocampal fissure (HiF). The astrocytosis was decreased by pioglitazone. Bars are 100 μM.