Western blot analysis of GFAP expression in hippocampus. A) 4-month-old animals, treated for 2 months with control food or pioglitazone. B) 9-month-old mice. Values are the means ± SD; In A: (**) p < 0.01, (*) p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA analysis followed by Bonferroni analysis; n = 4–5 per group. In B: (**) p < 0.01, Student's T-test; n = 5 per group.