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Table 1 Clinical data and intrathecal cytokine levels in patients with severe closed head injury.

From: Tumor necrosis factor-mediated inhibition of interleukin-18 in the brain: a clinical and experimental study in head-injured patients and in a murine model of closed head injury.

Patient Age (years) / Gender Type of brain injury (Marshall score) Outcome (GOS) TNF in CSF (pg/mL) IL-18 in CSF (pg/mL) Correlation rS
     Mean Range Mean Range  
1 38 / M EML 4 6.4 1.0 – 11.5 40.6 6.5 – 155.2 - 0.804 **
2 30 / M DI II° 3 3.6 1.0 – 7.7 114.3 29.7 – 286.4 - 0.580 *
3 56 / M EML 4 6.3 1.0 – 10.0 35.1 11.2 – 100.3 - 0.530
4 57 / F DI II° 5 6.0 1.0 – 11.7 20.1 5.0 – 168.8 - 0.761 **
5 44 / M EML 4 1.6 1.0 – 3.4 39.8 22.6 – 74.5 - 0.751 *
6 26 / M EML 4 3.2 1.0 – 10.3 108.5 5.0 – 328.6 - 0.832 **
7 47 / M EML 1 1.1 1.0 – 1.4 268.5 78.3 – 462.0 - 0.372
8 25 / M EML 4 2.2 1.0 – 4.0 91.6 10.3 – 290.0 - 0.195
9 37 / F DI III° 3 1.6 1.0 – 2.7 183.7 21.5 – 382.2 - 0.844 **
10 35 / M DI II° 4 2.0 1.0 – 5.8 209.4 19.9 – 391.8 - 0.772 *
Controls ( n = 10)    1.0 1.0 – 7.1 5.0 5.0 – 8.4  
  1. Statistical analysis for assessment of the correlation between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-18 levels in serial cerebrospinal fluid samples for up to 14 days after trauma was performed by Spearman's rank correlation (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). The patients' outcome was determined at 3 months after injury by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score [33]: 5 = asymptomatic, 4 = moderate disability, 3 = severe disability, 2 = persisting vegetative state, 1 = death. The type of brain injury was classified by the CT-scan criteria established by Marshall et al. [34] into diffuse injury (DI) grade I-III and evacuated vs. non-evacuated mass lesions (EML, NEML).