Cross-sectional BAFF concentrations. (A) CSF BAFF. Box and whisker graphs depict the mean as a plus sign, the median as a line within the box, interquartile ranges as the upper and lower box lines, and the range as Tukey error bars. Primary statistical comparisons were of means for untreated OMS versus controls (*) and treated versus untreated OMS (†). Statistical significance level is indicated by the number of symbols: * 0.05 > P ≥0.01, *** P ≤0.0001. The pre-bundled treatment groups were ACTH (n = 37), steroids (n = 22), IVIG (n = 24), ACTH + IVIg (n = 39), steroids + IVIg (n = 27), ACTH + other (rituximab, chemotherapy, or steroid sparers) (n = 14), and steroids + other (n = 13). None of the three ACTH groups differed from each other in BAFF concentration, so they were bundled into ‘All ACTH Groups’. Steroid groups were bundled the same way. OIND was significantly different than all other groups (‡). The mean ACTH dose in the combined ACTH groups was 28 ± 22 IU/m2/day (alternate day doses averaged to provide a daily dose equivalent). The mean steroid dose was 1.3 ± 1.3 mg/kg/day. (B) Serum BAFF. The ACTH monotherapy group and the ACTH + IVIg group, which were not significantly different in BAFF concentrations, were bundled into group 2; steroids were handled likewise in group 3. The ‘Rituximab + Other’ group included rituximab, IVIg, and either steroids or ACTH.