PGRN ameliorates TNF-
-induced inflammation in hBMVECs. (A) Representative bands from the Western blotting analysis of ICAM-1 and β-actin. (B) Optical densitometry quantification of ICAM-1, normalized to β-actin. TNF-α (10 ng/mL) induced an approximately eight-fold increase in ICAM-1 in hBMVECs after a 20-h exposure. ### P <0.001 vs. control group; Student's t-test. PGRN significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01 vs. vehicle-treated group; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test; n = 4 for each group. hBMVECs, human brain microvascular endothelial cells; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; PGRN, progranulin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.