MSC treatment upregulates TSG-6 and downregulates NF-κB expression. Upregulation of TSG-6 (A) was observed from 12 to 72 h in the injured cortex after TBI in the MSC-treatment group. mRNA levels of NF-κB (B) decreased from 12 to 48 h after MSC transplantation. Similar results were observed at the protein level (C) for TSG-6 and NF-κB p65. n = 6 in each time point of per group. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus PBS group.