Suggested mechanism of CX
CL1 action. Activation of microglial CX3CR1 by exogenous application of CX3CL1 induces the release of adenosine (1) that in turn activates adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) located on microglia cells and, possibly, on astrocytes stimulating the release of d-serine (2). The binding of the cofactor d-serine to the synaptically activated N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) (3) potentiates the receptor function. Note that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are blocked and, for clarity, only factors demonstrated to play a role in the described mechanism are represented.