Upregulated MCP-1 expression in the DG after SE. (A) Mean fold-change (+ SEM) of MCP-1 gene expression in SE rats with respect to control rats. *
P <0.05 compared with the control group. (B) Mean concentration (+ SEM) of MCP-1 protein at 1 to 28 days after SE. *
P <0.05, ***
P <0.001 compared with the control group. (C) Distribution patterns in the DG of MCP-1 expression (left upper panel) and its co-labeling with CD11b (right upper panel), NeuN (left lower panel) and GFAP (right lower panel) on day 1 after SE. Arrowheads denote MCP-1-positive cells in hilus. Arrows denote MCP-1-positive cells (red) co-labeled with CD11b, GFAP and NeuN (green), respectively. Scale bar: 100 μm. GCL: granule cell layer; H: hilus.