Astroglial and macrophage/microglial expression of IL-1β in the right hemisphere exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Mean ± standard error of the mean ratio of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + IL-1β + or ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) + IL-1β + double-positive cells to total number of cells after LPS + HI exposure at 4 h (A) and 48 h (B) compared to control (Ctl). Immunofluorescent staining of GFAP + IL-1β + double-positive cells (overlap) in the fronto-parietal neocortex (C) and external capsule (D) at 48 h post-LPS + HI versus Ctl (3 to 4 pups per experimental condition). Scale bar = 50 μm. Analysis of variance with Newman-Keuls post-test; *
P ≤ 0.05, ***
P ≤ 0.001. h hour, F-P Fronto-parietal, DAPI 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.