Granzyme B (GrB) and albumin immunoreactivity (IR). (A)–(E) Granzyme B (GrB) IR. (A) Perivascular CD8 positive cells (arrows) for FCD IIb. (B) and (C) GrB positive cells (arrows) for FCD IIb around blood vessels and in the vicinity of dysmorphic neurons (asterisks). Insert in (C) shows a GrB positive cell near an astrocyte (GFAP positive). (D) and (E) GrB positive cells in cortical tubers (arrows) for TSC, also the vicinity of a dysmorphic neuron (asterisk in (D)). (F)–(L) Albumin IR. For FCD I (F) and FCD IIa (G) there is an absence of glial IR. Albumin IR was detected in blood vessels (arrows). (H) and (I) FCD IIb: Albumin IR was detected in perivascular astrocytes (arrows). (J) and (K) TSC: Strong albumin IR was detected within the tuber in the perivascular region with expression in giant cells (arrows). Insert (a) in (J) shows albumin in cells surrounding a blood vessel (stained with CD31). Insert (b) in (J) and the insert in (K) show co-localization of albumin with GFAP within tubers. (L) For GG, there is strong albumin IR within the tumor. The insert shows co-localization of albumin with GFAP in tumor astrocytes. Scale bars (A): 40 μm; (B): 25 μm; (C)–(E): 20 μm; (F)–(H), (J) and (K) (bar in (J)): 80 μm; (I), (L): 40 μm.