Immunocytochemical demonstration of hBD-1 in the hippocampus. Age-matched controls (A,B) vs. AD (C,D) shows an elevated protein expression in the cytoplasm of pyramidal neurons in AD compared to non-AD control brain. The expected localization of hBD-1 in glial cells was also demonstrated in AD cases (C, inset). In AD cases, GVD is also specifically stained (D, arrows). In D, inset shows a higher magnification image of the GVD-containing neuron marked with an asterisk (*). Scale bar A–D = 50 μm; Insets C,D = 20 μm.