Inflammasome expression in primary human neural cells. (A) Immune gene transcript levels in primary human microglia, astrocytes, and neurons showing that microglia express all inflammasome-associated genes examined unlike astrocytes or neurons. (B) Expression of inflammasome components and substrates in primary microglia ± TNF-α (50 ng/mL). (C) IL-1β expression in LPS (25 ng/mL) primed microglia co-stimulated with ATP (500 M) or MDP (500 ng/mL) ± caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (100 M). (D) IL-1β release from LPS (25 ng/mL) primed microglia (but not astrocytes) co-stimulated with ATP (500 μM) or MDP (500 ng/mL). Student’s t-test, *P <0.05.