Timm staining showing mossy fiber sprouting in supragranular region of the dentate gyrus of saline-treated and AID-treated animals. (A) Vehicle treated. (B) The second group of animals was injected with AID for 1 day. (C) The third group received AID treatment for 10 consecutive days after induction of status epilepticus. Four months after SE, brains were harvested and processed for Timm staining. (D) Protracted AID (10-days) reduced mossy fiber sprouting as observed using Timm staining. Analysis of mossy fiber sprouting showed synaptic reorganization in vehicle-treated rats as well as in animals treated with a single injection of anti-inflammatory drugs (Timm scores 1.81 ± 0.32 and 1.46 ± 0.25, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in mossy fiber sprouting in the animals treated with anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days (Timm score 0.67 ± 0.17); (P <0.05 vs. each of two other groups). Scale bar, 100 um.