Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain was reduced in ICE KO mice at 24 h following LPS given ICV. (a) LPS increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in WT and ICE KO at 4 h. Expression of IL-1β and TNF-α remained elevated in brains of only WT mice at 24 h. (b) IL-10 expression was increased similarly by central LPS in both strains of mice at 4 h and 24 h. In contrast, IL-1RA mRNA expression increased in both strains at 4 h but remained elevated at 24 h only in WT mice. (c) CD11b and GFAP expression were increased similarly in WT and ICE KO brains at 4 h. At 24 h, CD11b expression was reduced in ICE KO mice compared to WT mouse brains following ICV administration of LPS. Data are average mRNA expression levels relative to GAPDH ± SEM; **P <0.01, *P <0.05 comparing bracketed groups; main effects of LPS where indicated; n = 6 mice per group. Insets: Data presented with zoomed in scale to ease interpretation. Mean Ct values for saline treated WT groups were: IL-1β, 31.7 ± 0.4; TNF-α, 32.0 ± 0.3; IL-6, 31.6 ± 0.4; IL-10, 34.6 ± 0.2; IL-1RA, 33.2 ± 0.3; CD11b, 20.7 ± 0.03; GFAP, 17.4 ± 0.1.