The increase of multiple cytokines and chemokines following LPS or PAM activation of microglia is attenuated by dipyridamole. 25-cytokine multiplex ELISA permitted measurement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon α (IFN-α), IFN-γ, interleukin 1ra (IL-1ra), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), eotaxin and TNF-α in the cell culture supernatant. LPS and Pam increased the levels of all inflammatory molecules, and all were attenuated by dipyridamole (20 μM). These data were reproduced in a second microglia culture. Only eight of the molecules are displayed.