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Table 3 Basic demographics and hyaluronic acidlevels in ischemic stroke patients with different subtypes based on the TOAST classification

From: Association between plasma levels of hyaluronic acid and functional outcome in acute stroke patients

  Large-artery atherosclerosis (n = 47) Small vessel occlusion (n = 44) Cardio-embolism (n = 30) Others (n = 42)
Age (years) 64.0 ± 12.8 65.0 ± 13.7 68.8 ± 11.9 64.9 ± 15.2
Male 37 (78.7) 31 (74.5) 18 (60.0) 25 (59.5)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 3.2 26.4 ± 3.9 24.9 ± 3.0 25.9 ± 4.2
Diabetes mellitus 23 (48.9) 16 (36.4) 11 (36.7) 17 (40.5)
Hypertension 33(70.2) 29 (65.9) 23 (76.7) 34 (81.0)
Hyperlipidemia 16 (34.0) 16 (36.4) 5 (16.7) 16 (38.1)
Atril fibrillation 0 (0) 0 (0) 26 (74.1)** 16 (38.1)**
History of stroke 14(30.0) 7(15.9) 9 (30.0) 6 (14.3)
NIHSS 10.9 ± 8.4** 4.7 ± 4.6 14.9 ± 6.2** 7.6 ± 7.6
mRS ≤2 17 (36.2) 29 (65.9)** 9 (30.0) 27 (64.3)**
HA <48 hours (ng/ml) 194.7 ± 186.4 213.4 ± 258.3 258.6 ± 191.5 192.2 ± 178.3
HA (ng/ml) 48 to 72 hours (ng/ml) 218.8 ± 270.41 189.5 ± 260.8 508.4 ± 879.8* 316.2 ± 644.7
  1. Values are shown as number (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation. HA, hyaluronic acid; mRS, modified Rankin scale; NIHSS, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; Others, specific etiology, and undetermined etiology in TOAST classification; TOAST, Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.
  2. The values of all pairs of columns were compared to each other.*P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01.