Substantially reduced transcripts for proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in CXCR3-/- brains. Total RNA was isolated from freshly prepared brain homogenates using Trizol before cDNA was synthesized using Superscript III enzyme. TaqMan gene expression assays revealed a strongly reduction of various inflammatory transcripts after three weeks of cuprizone diet in CXCR3-deficient brain. Note the early induction of Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl5 and Ccl2 mRNA expression levels after three weeks of cuprizone diet, correlating with the high levels of Tnf, Il6 and Ifng in WT brains. In contrast, in CXCR3-/- brains, transcript levels only slightly increased compared to control levels (0 weeks). Values were normalized against a housekeeping gene Gapdh (*P <0.05, **P <0.005, ***P <0.001, mean ± SEM, n = 4 to 5 for each genotype and time point).