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Table 2 Controlled studies of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive mood

From: MIF: Mood Improving/Inhibiting Factor?

Authors Subjects Depression measures Intervention(duration) Analysis (t) Pertinent results
Hawkley et al. [81] 75 subjects BDI Public speaking stress task (once) Serum MIF (0, 15 minutes) MIF levels are increased in subjects showing mild to moderate depression (BDI)
MIF levels are unaffected by the public speaking stress task
Edwards et al. [59] 126 healthy subjects BDI Public speaking stress task (once) ELISA for serum MIF (0, 3, 15, 45 minutes) MIF levels are increased at baseline in subjects showing high depressive symptoms (BDI)
MIF levels do not change over the time course measured
Christian et al. [82] 22 pregnant subjects CES-D Vaccination for influenza virus (once) ELISA for serum MIF (0, 1 weeks) Pregnant women with depressive symptoms (CES-D) show increased MIF levels at 1 week
Katsuura et al. [83] 209 healthy subjects Zung-SDS None Multiplex suspension array for serum levels of multiple immune mediators (0) MIF levels are not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (SDS)
Musil et al. [85] 32 MDD patients, 20 healthy controls DSM-IV Treatment with reboxetine and add-on celecoxib (5weeks) ELISA for serum MIF, TGFB, and sCD14 (0, 3, 5 weeks) MIF levels are increased at baseline in MDD patients
MIF levels are unchanged during reboxetine treatment
Celecoxib reduces HamD scores but does not affect MIF levels
Cattaneo et al. [86] 74 MDD patients, 34 healthy controls DSM-IV Treatment with escitalopram or nortryptiline (8 weeks) qPCR for serum leukocyte mRNA levels of several candidate genes (0, 8 weeks) MIF mRNA levels are increased at baseline in treatment-responsive MDD patients; MIF mRNA levels decrease during treatment, but with no correlation to treatment response
  1. All studies collected serum from subjects at the times indicated (0 = baseline) for measurements of peripheral MIF levels. BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; DSM-IV = Diagnostics and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HRSD = Hamilton Depression Scale 17-item version; MADRS = Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; SDS = Self-Rating Depression Scale; UCLA-R = Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale.