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Table 1 Demographic characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cases, developmental delay (DD) and general population (GP) controls - the Early Markers for Autism study

From: Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

Characteristics ASD (n = 84) GP (n = 159) DD (n = 49) Chi-square
  N (%) N (%) N (%) P-values
     ASD versus GP DD versus GP
Gender      
  Male 73 (86.9) 139 (87.4) 29 (59.1) 0.89 < 0.01
  Female 11 (13.1) 20 (12.6) 20 (40.8)   
Maternal ethnicity      
  Hispanics 20 (23.8) 73 (45.9) 28 (57.1)   
  Non-Hispanics 64 (76.2) 86 (54.1) 21 (42.9) < 0.01 0.12
Maternal place of birth      
  US 45 (53.6) 71 (44.7) 16 (32.7) < 0.01 0.26
  Mexico 9 (10.7) 58 (36.5) 22 (44.9)   
  Other 30 (35.7) 30 (18.8) 11 (22.4)   
Maternal age (median and inter-quartile range) 31 (28 – 34) 28 (24 – 32) 29 (25 – 32) < 0.01 0.68
  Gestational age (GA in days)      
  Preterm (GA < 260 days) 9 (10.7) 23 (14.5) 11 (22.5) 0.42 0.20
  Term (GA ≥ 260 days) 75 (89.3) 136 (85.5) 38 (77.5)   
  GA median and interquartile range 276 (269 – 280) 274 (267 – 279) 276 (265 – 282) 0.22 0.90
Child age (in days at newborn blood draw, median and inter- quartile range) 1.22 (1.02 – 1.76) 1.18 (1.03 – 1.56) 1.40 (1.05 – 2.27) 0.38 0.03
Birth year      
  2000 23 (27.4) 31 (19.5) 26 (53) 0.15 < 0.01
  2001 61 (72.6) 128 (80.5) 23 (47)