Skip to main content

Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% CIs Comparing levels of newborn blood spot cytokines/chemokines among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), developmental delays (DD) and general population controls (GP) - the Early Markers for Autism study

From: Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

Exposure Exposure categories Developmental category ASD versus GP DD versus GP
   ASD (N = 84) n (%) DD (N = 49) n (%) TD (N = 159) n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa( 95% CI) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORb(95% CI)
MCP-1 Q1 27 (32.14) 17 (34.69) 41 (25.79) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Q2 13 (15.48) 14 (28.57) 39 (24.53) 0.50 (0.23 – 1.12) 0.49 (0.20 – 1.20) 0.86 (0.37 – 1.99) 0.52 (0.16 – 1.71)
Q3 15 (17.86) 9 (18.37) 39 (24.53) 0.58 (0.27 – 1.26) 0.48 (0.20 – 1.14) 0.55 (0.22 – 1.39) 0.45 (0.13 – 1.54)
Q4 29 (34.52) 9 (18.37) 40 (25.16) 1.10 (0.55 – 2.17) 0.93 (0.43 – 2.01) 0.54 (0.21 – 1.35) 0.55 (0.15 – 1.97)
≤ 90% 66 (78.57) 45 (91.84) 143 (89.94) Reference Reference Reference Reference
> 90% 18 (21.43) 4 (8.16) 16 (10.06) 2.43 (1.175.07) 3.24 (1.417.47) - -
MIP-1α Q1 23 (27.38) 22 (44.90) 41 (25.79) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Q2 20 (23.81) 7 (14.29) 39 (24.53) 0.91 (0.43 – 1.92) 0.86 (0.36 – 2.02) 0.33 (0.12 – 0.87) 0.21 (0.05 – 0.78)
Q3 19 (22.62) 13 (26.53) 42 (26.42) 0.80 (0.38 – 1.69) 1.01 (0.37 – 2.70) 0.57 (0.25 – 1.29) 0.36 (0.10 – 1.23)
Q4 22 (26.19) 7 (14.29) 37 (23.27) 1.06 (0.50 – 2.20) 1.53 (0.52 – 4.49) 0.35 (0.13 – 0.92) 0.29 (0.06 – 1.35)
>10% 70 (83.33) 14 (28.57) 143 (89.94) Reference Reference Reference Reference
≤ 10% 14 (16.67) 35 (71.43) 16 (10.06) 1.78 (0.82 – 3.86) 1.72 (0.71 – 4.14) 3.57 (1.598.01) 3.36 (1.169.69) c
≤ 90% 70 (83.33) 46 (93.88) 140 (88.05) Reference Reference Reference Reference
> 90% 14 (16.67) 3 (6.12) 19 (11.95) 1.47 (0.69 – 3.11) 1.76 (0.70 – 4.39) - -
RANTES Q1 26 (30.95) 21 (42.86) 40 (25.16) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Q2 23 (27.38) 9 (18.37) 40 (25.16) 0.88 (0.43 – 1.80) 0.82 (0.37 – 1.81) 0.42 (0.17 – 1.04) 0.34 (0.10 – 1.15)
Q3 20 (23.81) 14 (28.57) 40 (25.16) 0.76 (0.37 – 1.59) 0.63 (0.28 – 1.43) 0.66 (0.29 – 1.49) 0.55 (0.19 – 1.58)
Q4 15 (17.86) 5 (10.20) 39 (24.53) 0.59 (0.27 – 1.28) 0.46 (0.18 – 1.16) 0.24 (0.080.71) 0.14 (0.030.62)
> 10% 68 (80.95) 33 (67.35) 143 (89.94) Reference Reference Reference Reference
≤ 10% 16 (19.05) 16 (32.65) 16 (10.06) 2.10 (0.99 – 4.45) 2.42 (1.055.55) 4.33 (1.969.54) 3.78 (1.2911.03)
≤ 90% 79 (94.05) 46 (93.88) 143 (89.94) Reference Reference Reference Reference
> 90% 5 (5.95) 3 (6.12) 16 (10.06) 0.56 (0.20 – 1.60) 0.59 (0.18 – 1.89) - -
Eotaxin Q1 25 (29.76) 17 (34.69) 41 (25.79) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Q2 23 (27.38) 9 (18.37) 37 (23.27) 1.02 (0.49 – 2.09) 0.95 (0.42 – 2.14) 0.58 (0.23 – 1.47) 0.88 (0.27 – 2.85)
Q3 19 (22.62) 12 (24.49) 42 (26.42) 0.74 (0.35 – 1.54) 0.58 (0.25 – 1.32) 0.68 (0.29 – 1.62) 0.62 (0.20 – 1.88)
Q4 17 (20.24) 11 (22.45) 39 (24.53) 0.71 (0.33 – 1.52) 0.60 (0.20 – 1.79) 0.68 (0.28 –1.63) 1.11 (0.27 – 4.58)
≤ 90% 76 (90.48) 44 (89.80) 143 (89.94) Reference Reference Reference Reference
> 90% 8 (9.52) 5 (10.20) 16 (10.06) 0.94 (0.38 – 2.29) 1.10 (0.36 – 3.34) 1.01 (0.35 – 2.93) 1.24 ( 0.34 – 4.42)c
IFN-γ Non-detected 65 (77.38) 42 (85.71) 116 (72.96) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Detected 19 (22.62) 7 (14.29) 43 (27.04) 0.78 (0.42 – 1.46) 0.91 (0.47 – 1.75) 0.45 (0.18 – 1.07) 0.64 (0.23 – 1.76)c
IL-1β Non-detected 65 (77.38) 39 (79.59) 122 (76.73) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Detected 19 (22.62) 10 (20.41) 37 (23.27) 0.96 (0.51 – 1.80) 1.11(0.52 –2.35) 0.84 (0.38 – 1.85) 0.65 (0.19 – 2.23)
IL-2 Non-detected 57 (67.86) 41 (83.67) 110 (69.18) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Detected 27 (32.14) 8 (16.33) 49 (30.82) 1.06 (0.60 – 1.87) 1.14 (0.38 – 3.43) 0.43 (0.19 – 1.00) 0.26 (0.01 – 8.76)
IL-4 Non-detected 65 (77.38) 42 (85.71) 118 (74.21) Reference Reference Reference Reference
Detected 19 (22.62) 7 (14.29) 41 (25.79) 0.84 (0.45 – 1.56) 0.95 (0.49 – 1.85) 0.48 (0.20 – 1.15) 0.64 (0.23 – 1.80)c
IL-6 Non-detected 65 (77.38) 39 (79.59 119 (74.84) Reference Reference Reference  
Detected 19 (22.62) 10 (20.41) 40 (25.16) 0.87 (0.46 – 1.62) 1.01 (0.52 – 1.96) 0.76 (0.34 – 1.66) 0.91 (0.35 – 2.35)c
IL-10 Non-detected 45 (53.57) 25 (51.02) 86 (54.09) Reference Reference Reference Reference
  Detected 39 (46.43) 24 (48.98) 73 (45.91) 1.02 (0.60 – 1.73) 0.17 (0.02 – 1.55) 1.13 (0.59 – 2.14) 1.53 (0.68 – 3.48)c
  1. aResults adjusted for maternal place of birth, child birth month, birth year, gender and specimen plate number.
  2. bResults adjusted for maternal place of birth, child year of birth, gender, specimen plate number and child age at blood draw.
  3. cResults adjusted for maternal place of birth, child year of birth, gender and child age at blood draw.
  4. For MCP-1 and eotaxin, comparison between ≤ 10% versus > 10% was not possible because more than 5% of the sample was below MDL.