Changes in inflammatory profile between surfactant protein-D (SP-D) knock out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). (A) No differences were observed in TNF mRNA levels between naïve SP-D KO and WT mice nor between SP-D KO and WT at 24 hours or 5 days after pMCAO. Both genotypes showed a significant increase in TNF mRNA levels at 24 hours compared to naïve and 5 days (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test, n = 5 to 8). (B) TNF mRNA levels correlated with the infarct volume in WT mice 5 days after pMCAO (Spearman’s r = 0.99), a correlation which was not present in SP-D KO mice. (C) No difference was observed in CD11b mRNA levels between naïve SP-D KO and WT mice or at 24 hours or 5 days. (D) Immunohistochemical staining for CD11b at 1 day and 5 days after pMCAO showed similar microglial-leukocyte activation in SP-D KO and WT mice. (E) No difference was observed in PMN infiltration assessed by nuclear morphology in toluidine blue-stained sections, or infiltration with CD45+ cells between SP-D and WT at 24 hours. Insert: immunohistochemical demonstration of Gr1 by PMN. IF: infarct, P-IF: peri-infarct. Scale bars: D = 200 μm, E = 40 μm, insert = 10 μm. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.