Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is expressed in vascular or vessel-associated cells in normal appearing and in ischemic human brain tissue. (A-D) Immunohistochemical staining showing SP-D in vascular cells (A) and CD45+ cells with a microglial morphology (B) in the normal appearing human neocortex. The specificity of the antibody was verified by immunohistochemical staining of (C) Clara cells (arrows) and (D) type II pneumocytes (arrows) in human lung tissue. (E-J) SP-D staining was found in vascular and vessel-associated cells in P-IF and IF tissue from human stroke victims with lesions in the right hippocampus (E,F), the left internal capsule (G,H), and the right temporal lobe (I,J). (K,L) CD45 staining showing cells with a microglial morphology located in the P-IF (K) and cells with a leukocyte-like morphology in the IF (L) from a patient with a lesion in the right temporal lobe. IF: infarct, P-IF: peri-infarct. Scale bars: (A,B and E-L) = 40 μm and (C,D) = 30 μm.