Model showing a plausible role of TRIM21 as a negative regulator of IRF3 activation and IFN-β production following JEV infection in human microglial cells. JEV infection causes activation of the RIG-1 receptor, initiating a downstream signaling mechanism leading to the activation of IRF-3. Phosphorylated IRF-3 dimerizes and translocates into the nucleus, where it leads to the transcription and production of IFN-β. JEV infection also induces the TRIM21 protein, which negatively regulates IRF-3 phosphorylation, leading to reduced IFN-β production. The upregulation of TRIM21 is proposed to be a feedback mechanism to inhibit the innate immune response in JEV infection.