Ilantide attenuates the decrease in social activity and increases plasma levels of interleukin 10 in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. Ilantide-t (Ila; 10 mg/kg), anakinra (Ana; 100 mg/kg) or vehicle (Veh; 1 ml/kg) was subcutaneously injected simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 μg/kg) or vehicle (1 ml/kg). Baseline social activity was recorded for 4 minutes for all of the animals at 0 hours. The duration of social interaction at each time point is expressed as a percentage of baseline values and was averaged for each experimental group. The data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (A) Social activity of rats in control groups. (B) Social activity of rats in LPS-treated and veh/veh groups (SEM for LPS/Ana group not presented). *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 compared with control (veh/veh). +
P < 0.05 and ++
P < 0.01 compared with LPS/Ila group. (C) Weight gain is expressed as the difference from the body weight measured at 0 and 24 hours after LPS injection. *P < 0.05 (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test). (D) Plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon γ and IL-10. **P < 0.01 (B and D), by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test.