PPARγ agonist pioglitazone suppressed inflammation and partially reversed neuronal loss in Cdk5 cKO1 mice. (A) Survival curves for untreated and treated Cdk5 cKO1 mice from P30 to P60. Survival rate for treated mice (n = 16) is better than that of untreated mice (n = 13). (B) Average body weights of untreated (n = 3) and treated (n = 3) male Cdk5 cKO1 mice and littermate male Cdk5f/f (control) mice (n = 3) at P60. *P < 0.05. (C), (D) Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of control, untreated, and treated Cdk5 cKO1 mice in cerebral cortex (C) and hippocampus (D) at P60. Coronal sections from these mice were stained with antibodies for NeuN, GFAP and Iba1. Scale bar = 100 μm. (E-G) Bar graphs indicate average cell densities of neurons (E), activated astrocytes (F) and microglia cells (G) in control, untreated and treated Cdk5 cKO1 mice at P60. ***P < 0.001 between control versus Cdk5 cKO1. †P < 0.05; ‡P < 0.01; §P < 0.001 between no treated versus treated (t-test).