The TSPO agonist XBD173 reduces microglial migration and proliferation. (A) Scratch assay to mimic wound-healing in cultured BV-2 microglia treated with vehicle, 50 ng/ml LPS, 50 μM XBD173 or both. Microphotographs from scratched areas were quantified 8 h after treatment (B). Data show mean ± SEM (n = 5/group) *P <0.05 XBD173 versus control, *P <0.001 XBD173 + LPS versus LPS-treated cells. (C), CFSE-based proliferation assay of BV-2 microglial cells treated with vehicle, 100 ng/ml LPS, 50 μM XBD173 or 100 ng/ml LPS + 50 μM XBD173. The proliferation rate of BV-2 microglia was analyzed 24 hours after treatment using flow cytometry and a representative graph out of four repetitions is shown. CFSE, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; TSPO, translocator protein (18 kDa).