RM-1 cell inoculation induces CXCL1 upregulation in spinal astrocytes. (A) Real-time PCR results show the increase of CXCL1 mRNA expression in the spinal cord after inoculation. CXCL1 mRNA upregulation was gradually increased from 7 days to 21 days. *P <0.05 vs. sham control. n = 4 mice per group. (B-F) Immunostaining shows the CXCL1-IR was increased in the spinal cord at 7 days (D), 14 days (E), and 21 days (F). ***P <0.001 vs. naive. n = 4 mice per group. (G-I) Double staining shows CXCL1 was colocalized with astrocytic marker, GFAP (G), but not with microglial marker CD11b (H) or neuronal marker NeuN (I).