TNF-α induces NFκB-dependent CXCL1 increase in cultured astrocytes. (A-D) CXCL1 was expressed in control astrocytes (A) and increased at 1 h after TNF-α incubation (B). Double staining of CXCL1 (B) with GFAP (C) shows the expression of CXCL1 by astrocytes (D). (E) ELISA results show TNF-α-induced CXCL1 upregulation was decreased by pretreatment with NFκB inhibitor, BAY11-7082. ***P <0.001 vs. control. #P <0.05, ###P <0.001 vs. TNF-α treatment. (F) Quantitative PCR shows TNF-α-induced CXCL1 mRNA increase was decreased by BAY11-7082. ***P <0.001 vs. control. ##P <0.01, ###P <0.001 vs. TNF-α treatment.