Curcumin attenuated the neuronal damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the transwell co-culture of neurons and microglia. (A) In a transwell system, microglia and neurons were cultured together, as shown. (B) Cell viability following the administration of different concentrations of curcumin. (C) Protein level of cleaved caspase-3 in neurons in co-culture and single-culture systems. Curcumin significantly reduced cleaved caspase-3 in the co-culture system after LPS stimulation. (D) Morphological changes of neurons in the single-culture and co-culture systems. Curcumin attenuated morphological damage in the co-culture system after LPS stimulation but did not have an effect in the single-culture system. Values (mean ± SD) are representative of three independent experiments. *
P < 0.05, compared with the no-curcumin treatment group for microglial viability; #
P < 0.05, compared with the no-curcumin treatment group for neuronal viability; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Bar = 50 μm.