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Figure 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Figure 2

From: Chronic thoracic spinal cord injury impairs CD8+ T-cell function by up-regulating programmed cell death-1 expression

Figure 2

Impaired T-cell cytokine production in response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Isolated splenocytes (1 × 106) from uninjured (CT) or T9-SCI mice at chronic phase after injury (SCI) were stimulated ex vivo with PMA/ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A for four hours and then processed for flow cytometry analysis. The unstimulated controls were incubated only with brefeldin A. (A) Representative dot plots show the percentage of IFN-γ+ and TNF-α+ cells in gated CD4+ T-cells following PMA/ionomycin stimulation compared to unstimulated or isotype control. (B) Bar graph represents the mean ± SEM percentages and numbers of cytokine producing CD4+ T-cell in response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation. (C) Representative dot plots show the percentage of IFN-γ+ and TNF-α+ cells in gated CD8+ T-cells following PMA/ionomycin stimulation compared to unstimulated or isotype control. (D) Bar graph represents the mean ± SEM percentages and numbers of cytokine producing CD8+ T-cells in response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation. Ten thousand events gated on live singlets were collected. n = 14 for CT, n = 12 for SCI. Data were pooled across four independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, one-tailed Student’s t-test.

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