PD168393 inhibited EGFR phosphorylation of astrocytes in an in vitro scratch wound model. Cultured astrocytes were immunostained for pEGFR, GFAP and DAPI in control (A1-A4), injury, (B1-B4) and PD168393 (40 μM) treatment groups (C1-C4) at 24 hours after injury (n = 5 in each group). (A1-C1) immunolabeling for pEFGR, (A2-C2), GFAP, (A3-C3) DAPI and (A4-C4) for co-localization of pEGFR, GFAP and DAPI. Scale bars = 100 μm. Representative Western blots of pEGFR and GFAP expression are shown (n = 3/group) (D). Semiquantitative analysis of pEGFR as a ratio of EGFR loading and semiquantitative measurements of GFAP were obtained by normalization to β-actin (E). *P < 0.05.