AMD3100 suppresses TCI-induced upregulation of c-Fos, GFAP and IBA1 in spinal cord dorsal horn. (A) Confocal images shows activation of neurons (c-Fos), astrocytes (GFAP) and microglia (IBA1) are suppressed by intraspinal injection of AMD3100. Original magnification: 200× for all the confocal images showing the dorsal horn ipsilateral to TCI (bar = 100 μm). (B) Data summary of A. AMD3100 (5 μg/10 μl, i.t.) was given once a day on postoperative days 12, 13 and 14, respectively. Tissues were collected 6 hours after the last injection (30 spinal cord sections in each group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus sham; ##P < 0.01 versus TCI.