Comparison of Aβ deposition, micro- and astroglial activation. (A) Representative detection of Aβ1–42 immunostaining, Thioflavin-S histochemistry, microglial (CD11b) and astroglial activation (GFAP) in APP [V717I] mice and non-transgenic controls of the identical genetic background at 3 (3 m) and 16 (16 m) months (Bar graph = 50 μm (Aβ1–42, Thioflavin-S), = 25 μm (CD11b, GFAP)) Focal microglial activation is indicated by black arrows. Focal astroglial activation within the parenchyma by black arrows and at the side of of a brain vessel by a white arrow (B). Quantification of hippocampal (HC, open bar) and cortical (FC, filled bar) Aβ1–42-positive plaques of APP [V717I] mice at 3 and 16 months (tg 3 m, tg 16 m) (n = 12, ANOVA followed by a TUKEY test, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.) and total Aβ detection by immunoprecipitation/western blot and subsequent quantification by densitometry (n = 3, Students t-test, *p < 0.05). (C) Quantification of CD11b positive, activated microglia (see insert, arrows) and GFAP positive astrocytes in the hippocampus (HC, open bar) and frontal cortex (FC, filled bars) (n = 12, ANOVA followed by a TUKEY test, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01,***p < 0.001).