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Table 1 Proinflammatory markers investigated in the temporal and spatial progression of early AD pathogenesis. Immune cell molecules/inflammatory markers were assessed from RNA isolated from entorhinal cortex and hippocampus tissue of 2, 3, and 6 month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice by qRT-PCR using Applied Biosystems Microfluidic Cards.

From: Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

Immune Marker Major Functions
C3 complement protein, binds to pathogenic structures
CCL2 (MCP-1) chemokine, promotes extravasation, activates macrophages, promotes Th2 immunity
CCL3 chemokine, promotes extravasation, antiviral defense, promotes Th1 immunity
Fractalkine chemokine, involved in brain inflammation, endothelial adhesion
IP10 chemokine, antiangiogenic, promotes Th1 immmunity
TNF-α cytokine, proinflammatory, attracts innate immune cells, activates macrophages
TGF-β cytokine, inhibits cell growth
IL-2 cytokine, T cell growth factor
IL-6 cytokine, B and T cell growth and differentiation
IL-8 cytokine, secreted by macrophage(predominately in response to bacterial infection), recruits innate and adaptive immune cells
IL-1α cytokine, macrophage and T cell activation
IL-1β cytokine, macrophage and T cell activation
IL-12a cytokine, activates NK cells, induces CD4 differentiation to Th1 cell
ICAM 1 intercellular adhesion molecule present on endothelial cells, binds LFA-1 and Mac-1 (Cd11b)
VCAM 1 adhesion molecule present on endothelial cells, binds VLA-4 integrin
CD4 cell surface marker for TH1 and TH2 T cells, coreceptor for MHC II
CD8 cell surface marker on cytotoxic T cells, coreceoptor for MHC I
CD80 cell surface marker, T cell/antigen presenting cell costimulation
CD86 cell surface marker, T cell/antigen presenting cell costimulation
Ptgs1 Cyclooxygenase type 1 (Cox-1)
Ptgs2 Cyclooxygenase type 2 (Cox-2)
Caspase 3 late-stage molecule involved in apoptosis