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Table 2 TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA levels are selectively elevated in the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice prior to overt amyloid plaque pathology. Total RNA was purified from microdissected entorhinal cortex from 2, 3, and 6 month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic control mice. cDNA was generated and subjected to Applied Biosystems Microfluidic Card analysis, a high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR technology that facilitates the simultaneous quantitation of 23 inflammation-related transcriptional targets. Of the panel of transcripts analyzed, only TNF-α and MCP-1 transcript levels were significantly enhanced by 6 months of age specifically within the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice (n = 6/group). These cytokine transcripts were unchanged in the entorhinal cortex of non-transgenic mice at all time-points analyzed. *p < 0.0005 when compared to the 2 month timepoint. Proinflammatory transcript expression in 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the entorhinal cortex

From: Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

  3xTg-AD Non-Transgenic
  3 months 6 months 3 months 6 months
Marker Fold Change (Relative to 2 months) Fold Change (Relative to 2 months) Fold Change (Relative to 2 months) Fold Change (Relative to 2 months)
C3 0.357 +/- 0.258 0.615 +/- 0.477 0.94 +/- 0.622 4.432 +/- 9.424
MCP-1 (CCL2) 5.079 +/- 4.826 10.796* +/- 3.298 1.459 +/- 1.230 2.616 +/- 5.184
CCL3 0.317 +/- 0.279 0.521 +/- 0.388 0.754 +/- 0.394 0.414 +/- 0.170
Fractalkine 0.853 +/- 0.215 0.858 +/- 0.333 1.584 +/- 0.568 0.989 +/- 0.311
IP10 1.291 +/- 0.911 1.922 +/- 1.028 1.157 +/- 0.507 1.393 +/- 1.062
TNF-α 5.299 +/- 4.580 14.822* +/- 5.618 1.215 +/- 1.793 1.702 +/- 1.916
TGF-β 1.149 +/- 0.181 1.092 +/- 0.527 1.054 +/- 0.178 0.922 +/- 0.312
IL-2 1.292 +/- 0.830 1.900 +/- 2.225 0.811 +/- 0.218 1.459 +/- 0.740
IL-6 2.216 +/- 2.921 4.900 +/- 5.817 1.632 +/- 1.604 3.340 +/- 4.726
IL-8 0.110 +/- 0.075 0.190 +/- 0.180 0.350 +/- 0.234 0.424 +/- 0.418
IL-1α 0.932 +/- 0.243 1.371 +/- 0.687 0.788 +/- 0.290 0.568 +/- 0.285
IL-1β 0.413 +/- 0.478 0.899 +/- 0.925 1.528 +/- 1.502 0.893 +/- 0.859
IL-12α 0.402 +/- 0.182 0.444 +/- 0.346 15.159 +/- 22.054 13.181 +/- 13.192
ICAM 1 1.000 +/- 0.317 1.215 +/- 0.567 1.029 +/- 0.076 0.733 +/- 0.202
VCAM 1 1.031 +/- 0.067 0.969 +/- 0.399 0.890 +/- 0.137 0.690 +/- 0.337
CD4 3.149 +/- 2.363 2.191 +/- 1.772 0.549 +/- 0.488 0.605 +/- 0.440
CD8 0.876 +/- 0.603 2.190 +/- 1.978 0.329 +/- 0.433 9.954 +/- 17.454
CD80 0.888 +/- 0.158 0.812 +/- 0.460 0.822 +/- 0.473 0.714 +/- 0.451
CD86 0.839 +/- 0.237 0.843 +/- 0.394 1.002 +/- 0.207 0.628 +/- 0.237
Ptgs1 1.066 +/- 0.225 1.270 +/- 0.609 1.165 +/- 0.232 0.966 +/- 0.323
Ptgs2 0.725 +/- 0.265 0.538 +/- 0.261 2.105 +/- 1.357 1.369 +/- 0.485
Caspase 3 0.955 +/- 0.171 0.900 +/- 0.424 0.884 +/- 0.173 0.741 +/- 0.366
VEGF 0.887 +/- 0.214 0.811 +/- 0.266 0.959 +/- 0.229 0.974 +/- 0.618
  1. *p < 0.0005, student t test:two sample equal variance