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Figure 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Figure 1

From: Maximal COX-2 and ppRb expression in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease

Figure 1

Immunoreactivity scores for KP1, CR3/43, GFAP, ppRb and COX-2 in the temporal cortex of nondemented control and AD cases. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed as described previously [6]. The following primary antibodies were used: rabbit polyclonal anti-COX-2 (Cayman, Ann Arbor, MI), rabbit anti-phosphoserine pRb (pSer 795, Cell Signaling, Beverly, MA). Mouse anti-CD68 (KP1) and mouse anti-HLA-DP, DQ, DR (CR3/43) were obtained from DAKO (Heverlee, Belgium). Mouse anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) was obtained from Monosan (clone 6F2, Uden, The Netherlands). Morphometric investigation was aimed at determining the area density occupied by the immunoreactive glial cells in the cortical layer. The area density (%) was quantified using Image-Pro Plus analysis software (Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Immunoreactive neurons (COX-2 and ppRb) were counted in a total area of 2 mm2. Neurons were distinguished from non-neuronal cells by nuclear size and shape. Values of cases are grouped according to the Braak stage for neurofibrillary changes (O, I-II, III-IV, V-VI) or Aβ deposits (O, A, B, C). Results are expressed as box plots. The box represents the interquartile range that contains 50% of the values. The whiskers extend from the box to the highest and lowest values. The line across the box indicates the median. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences between groups followed by the Mann-Whitney U test, to test differences between pairs of groups. Correlation analysis was done using the Pearson parametric and Spearman non-parametric method. * p < 0.05 versus Braak stage O. # p < 0.05 versus Braak stage C.

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