Interaction between CCL and CCR molecules at the blood-brain barrier. This figure depicts CCL-CCR interactions at the BBB (endothelial cells and astrocytic processes) interfacing a venule and the CNS. CCL molecules (most prominently CCL2, CCL3, CCL7 and CCL8, but also CCL1, CCL4, CCL19 and CCL21) are produced by residential microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells throughout the course of lesion development, and by infiltrating MNCs (CCL5) during late phases of plaque formation, and attract functionally different subsets of monocytes / macrophages, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes from the circulation via the BBB into the CNS. The temporal and spatial regulation of molecular events, the association of distinct CCR molecules with different histological subtypes of demyelination and the involvement of different CCL-CCR interactions in T cell polarization are detailed in the text. Here we illustrate in a simplified and cross-sectional manner the main groups of interacting receptors on various hematogenous cells and ligands released by residential immune cells of the CNS or by components of the BBB. Group A of receptors and ligands expressed by and acting on monocytes / macrophages, respectively: CCR1 / CCR2 / CCR3-CCL7, CCR2-CCL2, CCR3-CCL8, CCR4-CCL22; Group B of receptors and ligands expressed by and acting on dendritic cells, respectively: CCR4-CCL22, CCR6-CCL20, CCR7-CCL19 / CCL21; Group C of receptors and ligands expressed by and acting on T lymphocyes, respectively: CCR1-CCL3 / CCL5, CCR2-CCL2, CCR4-CCL22, CCR5-CCL3 / CCL4 / CCL5, CCR7-CCL19 / CCL21, CCR8-CCL1.