-IIA immunoreactivity in human postmortem brain tissues. Double immunostaining depicting sPLA2-IIA immunoreactivity in dark blue color and GFAP immunoreactivity in brown color is shown in panels A-D (using 20X and 40X objective lenses). Panel A demonstrates that little sPLA2-IIA immunoreactivity is present in a cluster of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes in ND hippocampus. Panel B shows many GFAP-positive astrocytes (white arrow) labeled with intense immunoreactivity for sPLA2-IIA (dark immunoreactive products, red arrow) in AD hippocampus. At higher magnification (Panel C), sPLA2-IIA immunoreactivity is shown in an astrocyte cell body in granular-like structures (red arrow). Panel D shows that immunoreactivity for sPLA2-IIA (red arrows) is also present in GFAP-positive astrcoytes (white arrows) surrounding microvessels in AD hippocampus. We also detected sPLA2 immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons (black arrows) in ND (Panel A) and AD (Panel D) hippocampus. In Panel E, several sPLA2-IIA immunoreactivitve profiles (red arrows) are co-localized with an amyloid plaque (brown immunoreactive area) detected by immunohistochemistry with an antibody to Aβ.