Cytokine mRNA expression 24 hours after surgery. The mRNA was purified from each hemisphere separately 24 hours after the end of surgery. The mRNA expression of COX-1, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 is presented as right:left hemisphere ratios for each animal. As expected, we found no indications of COX-1 mRNA upregulation 24 hours after tMCAo (A). For COX-2 (B), TNF-α (C), IL-1β (D), and IL-6 (E) we found consistent results implying mRNA up-regulation 24 hours after sham or tMCAo. We only found significant TNF-α up-regulation in the parecoxib group due to small sample sizes and large biological variation in the ischemia groups. Note that the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA ratios were only determined for two animals in the parecoxib sham group. Black ■: sham + saline; red ■: sham + parecoxib; black ●: tMCAo + saline; and red ●: tMCAo + parecoxib. Mean values are indicated with black horizontal lines. # means p < 0.01 and * p < 0.05.