Effects of hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment on MCP-1 expression in fetal human astrocytes (FHAs). MCP-1 mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein in FHAs exposed to hypoxia or 125 μM CoCl2 for 4 h were determined by RT-PCR (A) and ELISA (B), respectively, as described in Materials and methods. Panel A shows that four dishes of cells were used per treatment, and four RT-PCR reactions per treatment were therefore carried out. Each bar represents the mean ± SD of relative density/volumes of the bands on film negatives from least three experiments or three ELISA assays. Asterisks indicate significant difference compared to relevant controls (one-way ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons among means; p < 0.01 for Panel A, p < 0.05 for Panel B).