Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Figure 4

From: Sinomenine, a natural dextrorotatory morphinan analog, is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase

Figure 4

Microglial PHOX is critical for sub-picomolar SN neuroprotection. PHOX+/+ and PHOX-/- mouse neuron-glia cultures were pretreated with vehicle or SN (10-14 M) for 30 min, followed by LPS treatment. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring DA uptake (A), TNF-α production (B) and intracelluar ROS (C), respectively. Results are expressed as % of the control culture (A and C) and as pg/ml (B), and represent the mean ± SE for 3 individual experiments performed in triplicate in each experiment. *P < 0.05 compared with LPS culture. # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01 compared with the vehicle-treated control cultures.

Back to article page