S-Mtb increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in microglia. A-C) BV-2 cells were stimulated with 0.01, 0.1, or 1% s-Mtb or with 1 μg/ml LPS for the indicated times (0- 96 h). The supernatant was analyzed for cytokine production using ELISA. A significant increase in TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), and IL-12p40 (C) production was observed. D) TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 protein levels in primary cultures of mixed glial cells were analyzed after 18 h of s-Mtb stimulation. Values are the mean ± SD of triplicate samples.