Effect of MAPK inhibitors on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in s-Mtb-stimulated microglia. BV-2 cells were pre-incubated with or without protein kinase inhibitors (PB98059, 5, 10, or 20 μM; U0126, 5, 10, or 20 μM; SB203680, 1, 5, or 10 μM) for 30 min and then incubated with 1% s-Mtb for 18 h. The supernatant was analyzed for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD of values from three separate experiments. Significant differences compared to cultures incubated with 1% s-Mtb alone: *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001. M, media only; D, 0.1% DMSO.