A single dose of ethanol treatment enhanced LPS-induced IL-1βprotein in brain and serum, but not in liver. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with ethanol (5 g/kg, i.g.) for one day. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS (3 mg/kg) 24 hrs after ethanol treatment. Liver, serum and brain samples were collected at 1 hr after LPS injection. Liver, serum and brain IL-1βprotein was measured by ELISA. (A) A single ethanol dose increased LPS-induced brain IL-1βproduction. (B) A single dose of ethanol increased LPS-induced IL-1βprotein in serum. (C) A single dose of ethanol did not show potentiation to LPS-stimulated increase in IL-1βprotein in liver. The results are the means ± SEM (n = 6 per group). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, compared with the saline controls.# P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01, compared with LPS-treated group.