Effects of COX-2 deficiency on LPS-induced expression of glial markers. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis of astrocyte marker GFAP (A) and microglia marker SRA mRNA (B) in COX-2+/+and COX-2-/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 4-6). ***P < 0.001 compared to the corresponding vehicle-injected mice; #P < 0.05 compared to the LPS-injected COX-2+/+ mice. (C) Effects of COX-2 deficiency on LPS-induced activation of microglia. Representative photomicrographs of SRA immunohistochemistry in the striatum/caudate putamen and hippocampal area for COX-2+/+ and COX-2-/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. Bars represent 100 μm.