Effects of COX-2 deficiency on LPS-induced expression of cytokines and chemokines. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-1β (C), and CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL2/MCP-1 (E) for COX-2+/+ and COX-2-/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. (D) ELISA-based quantification of IL-1β protein levels in the brain of COX-2+/+ and COX-2-/-mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 4-6). ***P < 0.001 compared to the corresponding vehicle-injected mice; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 compared to the LPS-injected COX-2+/+ mice.