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Table 1 Tissues with AQ4 expression organized via biological system.

From: Neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis and aquaporin 4

System Animal (references) AQ4-Positive Tissues (Detection Methods)a Positive Cell Types Cellular Localization Expression Pattern
Nervous human [68, 135] mouse [136, 137] Rat [16, 19, 55, 135, 138–140] Gray and White Matter (IHC, IEM) Astrocytes Perivascular End-Feet Orthogonal Arrays
  Ventricles, but not in Choroid Plexus (IHC, IEM) Ependymal Cells Basolateral Orthogonal Arrays
  Pia Mater (IHC) Meningeal Cells N.Db N.D.
  Retina (ISH, IF, IEM) Müller Cells Astrocytes Vitreal End-Feet Perivascular End-Feet N.D.
  Posterior Optic Nerve (ISH, IF, IEM) Astrocytes Perivascular End-Feet N.D.
  Inner Ear (ISH, IF, IEM) Hensen's Cells Inner Sulcus Cells Supporting Cells of the Vestibular End Organ Basolateral N.D.
Urinary mouse [137] rat [138, 139, 141] Kidney Medullary Collecting Duct (IEM, IB, IHC, IF) Epithelial Cells Basolateral Orthogonal Arrays
Respiratory human [142] rat [138] Ciliated Ducts of Bronchi (IF, IHC) Columnar Epithelial Cells Intermediate cells Basolateral N.D.
  Acini of Bronchi Submucosal Glands (ISH) Epithelial Cells N.D. N.D.
  Trachea (IHC) Epithelial Cells Basolateral N.D.
Muscular human [143] mouse [137, 143] rat [139, 143] Skeletal Muscle (IF, IEM, RT-PCR) Fast-Twitch Fiber Sarcolemma Limited Orthogonal Arrays
Digestive human [144] Rat [138, 139, 145] Stomach (IHC) Parietal Cells Chief Cells Basolateral N.D.
  Villi of Distal Large Intestine (IHC) Epithelial Cells Basolateral N.D.
  Salivary Gland Excretory Duct (IHC) Epithelial Cells Basolateral N.D.
  Liver Bile Duct (RT-PCR, IB) Epithelial Cells Basolateral N.D.
Integumentary mouse [146] rat [139] Lacrimal Gland and Excretory Duct (IHC, IF) Glandular Cells Epithelial Cells Basolateral N.D.
  1. a. IF: immunofluorescence, IEM: immunoelectro microscopy, IHC: immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR: real-time polymerase chain reaction, IB: immunoblot
  2. b.N. D., not determined