Time course of acute changes in proinflammatory cytokines following TBI. Levels of the cytokines IL-1β (A), IL6 (B), TNFα (C) and the chemokine CCL2 (D) in pooled hippocampus and cortex extracts following sham procedure (open bars) or closed head TBI (filled bars) were measured by ELISA. Animals were sacrificed at 0-, 1-, 4-, and 12-hr recovery. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M of n = 6–8 animals per group. Significantly different from sham: *P < 0.05 vs Sham control; **P < 0.01 vs Sham; #P < 0.001 vs Sham by ANOVA.