Time course of long-term changes in proinflammatory cytokines following TBI. Levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL6, TNFα, and the chemokine CCL2 in pooled hippocampus and cortex extracts following sham procedure (open bars) or closed head TBI (filled bars) were measured by ELISA. Animals were sacrificed at 7 (A) and 14 (B) day recovery. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M of n = 6–8 animals per group. There were no significant differences between groups at either time point.